How Contextual Factors Fuel Corruption in the Procurement Cycle of Construction Projects

How Contextual Factors Fuel Corruption in the Procurement Cycle of Construction Projects – By Jones Kalyongwe,*, Mubiana Macwan’gi, Balimu Mwiya, Mundia Muya, Jonathan Tambatamba, Lungowe Matakala, Nalukui Milapo, Kahatibu Kazungu, & Vincent Byusa from the University of Zambia, Open University of Tanzania, and The National University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.

They say …In an effort to understand the nature of corruption, different approaches of identifying and estimating the extent of corruption exist. Macwan’gi et al. [3] state that corruption has crippling effects on national socio-economic development and governance systems. Despite many anti-corruption measures being implemented over the years, most governance and corruption indicators show that corruption remains a major challenge in Zambia. The 2014 National Corruption Diagnostic Study [4] shows that corruption is the third most serious problem in Zambia (unemployment and high cost of living being first and second respectively).

Similarly, the World Economic Forum’s 2013-2014 Global Competitiveness Report identified corruption as the second most problematic factor (after access to financing) fordoing business in Zambia; and the Global Economic Crime Survey–Zambia Report [5] indicate that bribery and corruption was the second most prevalent form of economic crime in Zambia. Very little literature exists on corruption in procurement in the construction sector in Zambia. However, the literature that exists suggests that the construction sector is riddled with corruption.

Transparency International [6]indicate that corruption is one of the main unethical practices in the construction sector, while Shakantu [7]observes that corruption in the construction industry is one “area which everybody in the industry knows about but nobody wants to go there”. Similarly, Sichombo et al., [8] 678 How Contextual Factors Fuel Corruption in the Procurement Cycle of Construction Projects reveal that the construction sector in Zambia is perceived to be the most corrupt by 35% of the respondents (followed by the consultancy sector at 33%).

Additionally, Mukumbwa and Muya [9] report that the prevalence of unethical practices was in all phases of the procurement cycle of construction projects in Zambia. Because corrupt acts are often masked, conducted in secrecy and not exposed in public [10] it is important to understand what drives corruption in procurement of construction projects in Zambia. This paper focuses on contextual factors as contributors of corruption. Contextual factors are said to be factors that reflect a particular context, characteristics unique to a particular group, community, society and individual.

Contextual environmental and personal factors play an essential part in how corruption manifests and how it affects procurement of construction projects in Zambia. Understanding these factors in the Zambian context would enable evidence based anti-corruption solutions. The fact that parties involved in the corruption are in most cases satisfied with the perceived gain from their acts makes awareness of contextual factors critical. Considering the socio-cultural environmental factors such as cultural norms gives an indication of how and why corruption takes place. Norms are the agreed upon expectations and rules by which a culture guides the behaviour of its members in any given situation.

Members of a culture must conform to its norms for the culture to exist and function. They first must internalise the social norms and values that dictate what is “normal” for the culture; then they must socialise, or teach norms and values to, their children. If internalisation and socialisation fail to produce conformity, some form of “social control” is eventually needed. Social control may take the form of ostracism, fines, punishments, and even imprisonment.

Yang [11] asserts that, activities in certain cultural circles, which might be regarded as essential to getting the job done, and a lawful means of doing so, may well be seen elsewhere as dishonest, or unlawful. For instance, in China, gift-giving is not only seen as obligatory in certain contexts, but also as a legitimate solution when, for instance, trying to obtain and change job assignments, buy certain foods and consumer items, and obtain better education. Yang [12]writes, “In the Chinese cultural discourse there is often a fine line between the art of guanxi and bribery”. For instance, bribery and corruption are pejorative, negative terms, whereas guanxi connotes “human sentiments” friendship, long-term personal relationships, and an image of people helping one another. So there is a good side of guanxi which bribery does not have. It follows that if the two parties do not have a prior personal relationship already, such as shared native homes, kin relationship, and one party is seen to help the other, then society will surmise that there is bribery going on”.

In Tanzania, one of the cultures that encourage corruption is that of “Achievers”. This entails the treating or regarding of openly corrupt individual in society as achievers.

In Zambia, the cultural setup is influenced by how people are socialised to relate to parents, elders and traditional leaders in a community setting and employers, superiors and leaders in a formal work environment. For example, the young cannot question parents and elders. Likewise, at places of work juniors or subordinates cannot question their superiors or employers. This has resulted in leaders or those with authority acting with impunity. Historically, in colonial times subjects’ submissiveness was equated to “loyalty to authority”. Today this is visible in some management styles of institutions, where submission still shows loyalty to authority.


July 2020 – LUSAKA BANKER WALKS FREE FROM 12 FRAUD CHARGES INVOLVING OVER $50, 000 A BANKER of Lusaka’s Makeni area walked free after the Lusaka Magistrates’ Court entered a nolle prosequi in a case he was facing 12 charges of fraudulent false accounting and theft by servant involving 54, 000 British Pounds and over US$38, 000 belonging to Atlas Mara.

The instructions to discontinue Regis Phiri Jr’s case came from the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP).Phiri is the son of former Zambia Security Intelligence Services Director General, Regis Phiri. When the matter came up for trial before chief resident magistrate Lameck Mwale state prosecutor Stuyvesant Malambo indicated that he had instructions from the Director of Public Prosecutions to enter a nolle prosequi in the matter. Magistrate Mwale ruled that following the DPP’s decision to dispense with proceedings in the matter the accused stood discharged. “In light of the nolle prosequi received from the DPP, proceedings against the accused are hereby discontinued and the said accused is accordingly discharged,” said magistrate Mwale.

It was alleged in the first count that Phiri on July 5, 2019, being employed as a banker at Atlas Mara, with intent to defraud, made eight false entries in the Atlas Mara card management system using bank officers’ credentials to show that a payment of 12, 000 British pounds was deposited and authorised on account number 45939700, when in fact not. It was alleged in the second count that Phiri on the same date stole 12, 000 British pounds, the property of Atlas Mara Bank. In count three, it was alleged that on the same date, Phiri, with intent to defraud, made 11 false entries in the Atlas Mara card management system using bank officers’ credentials to show that a payment of 16, 500 British pounds was deposited and authorised on account number 48544800, when in fact not.

Phiri was in the fourth count, alleged to have stolen 16, 500 British pounds, on the same date, the property of Atlas Mara Bank. In count five, it is alleged that on the same date, Phiri, with intent to defraud, made ten false entries in the Atlas Mara card management system using bank officers’ credentials to show that a payment of US$15, 000 was deposited and authorised on account number 48559200, when in fact not. In count six, Phiri was on July 5,2019 accused of stealing US$15, 000, belonging to Atlas Mara Bank. In count seven, it was alleged that on June 29, last year, Phiri with intent to defraud, made 11 false entries in the Atlas Mara card management system using bank officers’ credentials to show that a payment of 16, 500 British pounds was deposited and authorised on account number 48544800, when in fact not. In count eight, it was alleged that on the , Phiri on the same day stole the 16, 500 British pounds. In count nine, allegations were that on the same date, Phiri, with intent to defraud, made six false entries in the Atlas Mara card management system using bank officers’ credentials to show that a payment of 9,000 British pounds was deposited and authorised on account number 45939700, when in fact not.

In count 10, it was alleged that on the same date, Phiri stole the 9, 000 British pounds. Phiri in count 11 on June 29, 2019, with intent to defraud, allegedly made 16 false entries in the Atlas Mara card management system using bank officers’ credentials to show that a payment of US$23, 500 was deposited and authorised on account number 48559200, when in fact not. And in count 12 Phiri on June 29 last year allegedly stole US$23, 500 belonging to Atlas Mara. When the matter came up for trial early this year Lwimba Kabelu a human resource officer At Atlas Mara told the court that she had no evidence to show that Phiri employed as a remittance officer at Atlas Mara was handling matters to do with accounts contrary to his job description.(Source: Kalemba)

Anti-Corruption Tabloid Journalism in Africa

21 June 2020: In his book: Anti-Corruption Tabloid Journalism in Africa, pp.21-37, Brian Chama – Sheridan College (Oakville)discusses anti-corruption tabloid journalism practice in Zambia arguing that it operates in an environment designed to shut tabloids down. He focuses on the copper shipment scandal in which copper revenues in millions of dollars were swindled over the period of several years through South Africa’s company Marcol, set up by Zambian government officials to inflate freight charges on shipments.

Brian looks at the slush fund scandal which involved the dishing out of money by President Frederick Chiluba’s regime using illegal offshore accounts which were fueled by the culture of brown envelopes popularly known as slush fund to hang on to power.

He discusses the Zamtel scandal in which Communications and Transport Minister Dora Siliya hired RP Capital Partners Limited to value Zamtel assets to sale seventy-five per cent of shares for US$257 million with the government only recovering US$15 million.

Brian concludes that there exists a culture of political patronage and corruption with impunity in Zambia among leaders making exposure by tabloid newspapers a serious risk that often results in arrests and imprisonment including the closure of tabloid newspapers.



EPHRAIM KABUNDA MUNSHIFWA from the Department of Real Estate Studies, School of the Built Environment at the Copperbelt University, Zambia prepared a for presentation at the “2018 WORLD BANK CONFERENCE ON LAND AND POVERTY” The World Bank – Washington DC, March 19-23, 2018 Copyright 2018 by author(s). All rights reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial purposes by any means, provided that this copyright notice appears on all such copies.

Abstract: The need for a “good” governance structure on customary land in Zambia is now more urgent than ever before. High demand by multinationals, local investors, urban elites, local bureaucrats and politicians, is putting pressure on customary land to reform or commercialize. And yet the State has opted to “move more slowly” on reforms affecting customary land. With limited administrative mechanisms at the hands of traditional leaders, taken as custodians of customary land, the results have been confusion and corruption in the governance of this land.

This paper argues that this inertia to reform has a long history, starting from pre-independence at the time reserves for indigenous communities were established in 1928, into the current debate on the National Land Policy. Constant squabbles between the State and traditional leaders on which way reforms should take have also contributed to this quandary

Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) in Zambia

10 Aug 2020: Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) in Zambia: Public Perception and Perspective of ACC – 08/09/2020Delving into history and background. The legal provisions that outlawed corruption in independent Zambia were first contained in the penal code, CAP 146, Chapter X of the laws of Zambia. This legislation was exclusively concerned with “corruption offenses by persons employed in the public sector” but did not take offense with corruption transactions by or with private bodies or agents. It was therefore inadequate in as far as “fighting corruption” is concerned. The Zambia Police Force (now Service) which was charged with the duty of enforcement was also not able to adequately deal with corruption offenses.

In 1980, a bill in parliament was passed that culminated into the establishment of the Anti-Corruption Commission that was going to deal with corruption cases exclusively. The Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) is the Agency that is mandated and Zambian citizens expect ACC to spearhead the fight against Corruption in Zambia professionally, effectively and efficiently. The Commission was established in 1980 under an Act of Parliament, the Corrupt Practices Act No. 14 which has since been repealed. Settled, the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) is the main body tasked to combat corruption in Zambia. ACC investigates and prosecutes, conducts corruption prevention and community sensitization. The Anti-Corruption Commission is mandated to perform the following functions

1. Prevent and take necessary and effective measures for the prevention of corruption in public and private bodies;

2. Receive and investigate complaints of alleged or suspected corrupt practices, and subject to the directions of the Director of Public Prosecutions, prosecute those suspected of involvement in corruption;

3. Investigate any conduct of any public officer which in the opinion of the Commission may be connected with or conducive to corrupt practices;

4. Disseminate information on the socio-economic effects of corrupt practices, and enlist and foster public support against corrupt practices; and,

5. Do such things as are incidental or conducive to the attainment of the functions. In its efforts to effectively, efficiently and professionally perform these functions, the Commission has established five (5) main departments namely: Investigations; Legal and Prosecutions; Corruption Prevention; Community Education, and; Finance and Administration.

The ACC Mission Statement has been tabulated as follows: “To effectively and impartially prevent and combat corruption in order to promote integrity, transparency and accountability for the attainment of a corruption-free Zambia” whereas their Vision Statement is “A proactive, impartial and professional anti-corruption agency that promotes the attainment of a corruption free Zambia”. The ACC Values among many others are; Integrity, Excellence, Accountability, Respect, Confidentiality, Transparency, Collaboration, Impartiality, Loyalty, Responsibility and Patriotism. The ACC Website (not sure when it was last updated) sates; The Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) Mission Statement is “To effectively prevent and combat corruption in order to promote integrity, transparency and accountability for sustainable development in Zambia” while its Goal Statement is to “To achieve a significant reduction in the levels of corruption in Zambia”. The Vision Statement is “To be a lead institution of a broad sector alliance for combating corruption”. The Anti-Corruption Commission Core Values for Officers of the Commission are also guided by eight fundamental core ethical values in their performance of their duties. These include: Integrity, Excellence, Accountability, Respect, Confidentiality, Collaboration, Impartiality, Loyalty, Responsibility and Citizenship as contained in the ACC Code of Ethics. The Act Number 3 of 2012 which was assented into law on 12th April, 2012 is an Act to continue the existence of the Anti-Corruption Commission and provide for its powers and functions which are to; provide for the prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution and punishment of corrupt practices and related offences based on the rule of law, integrity, transparency, accountability and management of public affairs and property; provide for the development, implementation and maintenance of coordinated anticorruption strategies through the promotion of public participation; provide for the protection of witnesses, experts, victims and other persons assisting the Commission; provide for nullification of corrupt transactions; provide for payment of compensation for damage arising out of corrupt activities; provide for the domestication of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption, the Southern African Development Community Protocol Against Corruption and other regional and international instruments on corruption to which Zambia is a party; repeal and replace the Anti-Corruption Act, 2010; and provide for matters connected with, or incidental to, the foregoing. The background of the Anti-Corruption Commission lies in these efforts to fight this scourge of corruption. The Commission is mandated to spearhead a broad Anti-Corruption Mandate of the investigation, prosecution, prevention, and public education. This mandate anchors the Commission’s core functions of enforcement, prevention, education which are a pillar of its existence. Those who worked under the late Justice Robert M Kapembwa and Paul Douglas Russel fondly called this “the three-pronged attack” on corruption. The Anti-Corruption Commission is mandated to prevent and take necessary and effective measures for the prevention of corruption in public and private bodies.

The Commission receives and investigates complaints or cases of alleged or suspected corrupt practices (like complaints or allegations against Ronald K Chitotela and others against Dr. Chitalu Chilufya), and subject to the directions of the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP), prosecute those suspected of involvement in corruption. Investigating any conduct of any public officer which in the opinion of the Commission may be connected with or conducive to corrupt practices. It is important to mention that the DPP can access the investigations and prosecution file, review the witness statements, evidence collected, Bank Statements, Transactions, warn and caution statements administered and statements from suspects and after being satisfied that the matter merits prosecution in courts of law, gives a FIAT – a Legal consent and authority for ACC to formally arrest and prosecute the case in court. These approaches sometimes require joint efforts with other Law enforcement Agencies like in the case of the Task Force on Corruption or the GHOST 48 Houses which up to date, Zambia Police Service, Drug Enforcement Commission, and several other Security Services have FAILED to establish, determine, know or share the details of the owners of the said property. The Anti-Corruption Commission also disseminate information on the socio-economic effects of corrupt practices, and enlist and foster public support against corrupt practices; and, do such things as are incidental or conducive to the attainment of the functions. Under the Community Education, the Commission should have and must go ahead and be encouraged and supported to develop a deliberate policy of inculcating a culture of zero-tolerance for corruption among the youth through youth festivals, school anti-corruption clubs, and school curriculum. The Charity begins at home concept and citizens not to glorify THIEVES and condone CORRUPTION starts with all members of the community. Together, various ways including partnering with the private sector, NGOs, civil society like TIZ, artists and the general public should be and must be adopted to achieve the goal. “The three-pronged approach and attack” on Corruption resemble many jurisdictions, especially around the African Region. The ACC Departments and what they are expected to do. A). Investigations Department – Investigations of suspected cases of corruption and related crimes are conducted by this Department of the Commission. The Department thus houses one of the Commission’s core functions. The Department’s principal functions are:1. To receive and investigate complaints of alleged or suspected corrupt practices2. Intelligence gathering and data analysis. Once the ACC receives reports of alleged or suspected corrupt practices the Director General then authorizes inquiries to be conducted. Those found with cases to answer under the ACC Act are taken to court for trial and the Commission is represented by the Legal and Prosecutions Department. It is however important to note that an investigation can lead to the following outcomes:1. Prosecution of the accused once enough evidence of the commission of an offence is adduced and the Director of Public Prosecutions gives consent to prosecute the suspected offender.2. Exonerating an accused person if there is no evidence that points to wrong doing.3. Administrative action where evidence is insufficient to sustain a case in court or prove to the commission of an offence beyond reasonable doubt. In such a situation where evidence is insufficient, but the Commission believes that there is a loophole for corruption or an accused could have engaged in bad behavior which cannot be proved to be corruption, an investigation can end up in a recommendation for administrative action.4. The Commission can refer any case to any relevant agency that is deemed to have adequate authority to deal with cases that do not fall under the Commission’s jurisdiction. Some cases of outright fraud, theft, drug abuse and the like have been referred to the Zambia Police or the Drug Enforcement Commission for them to competently handle.

The Anti-Corruption Act No 3 of 2012 spells out what constitutes an offence of corruption for which the Commission will investigate and prosecute. According to the Act these offences include:1. soliciting, accepting, obtaining, giving, promising or offering of a gratification in return for a favor. The Act defines gratification as any corrupt payment, whether in cash or in kind.2. Misuse or abuse of public office for private or personal gain.3. A public officer who lives beyond one’s past and present official emoluments. This offence suggests that a public officer must prove that the wealth they have acquired is within their past and present official emoluments. If they fail to provide an explanation of how they acquired such wealth or property, this may be deemed to have been corruptly or ill-gotten. The challenge of who bears the burden of proof between the accused and the accuser is still an ongoing Social media and live debate in the Cases against Chitotela, Chilufya and Chimese. B). Legal and Prosecutions Directorate is charged with the responsibility of prosecuting offences under the Anti-Corruption Act No 3 of 2012. Section 6 (1) (b) (ii) of the Act also empowers the Commission to prosecute such other offences under any written law that may come to the attention of the Commission in the course of an investigation for corruption. (The Anti-Corruption Act No 3 of 2012). This Legal and Prosecutions Directorate carries out the prosecutorial functions of the Commission which includes:1. Rendering legal advice on the on-going inquiries and giving legal opinions on dockets upon conclusion of any inquiry.2. The Department also drafts all charges and consents for DPP’s consideration and prosecutes all cases of corruption and such other offences that may come to the attention of the commission in the course of any investigation of corruption.3. The Department also represents the commission, in collaboration with the Ministry of Justice, in all civil matters.4. It also undertakes legal research in order to enhance the capacity of the ACC to implement its mandate.It should be noted that when ACC Investigators are carrying out investigations against, high profile Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs) like Minister Chitotela, Chilufya or ZAF Commander Chimese, the Legal and Prosecution Department (with a pack of Lawyers and Prosecutors) do advise, give legal opinions and they participate in drafting the charges and consents for DPP’s consideration and Prosecutors from this Department may guide which State witness to call first, second, third before the Start witness in Court of Law. In Dr. Chilufya’s case, the Prosecutor decided to call “CHIPULI” first and consequently ACC suspended him without any Investigations. One wonders why the same ACC did not recommend suspension of Chitotela and Chilufya as they investigated serious offences of corruption. We are where we are because of these two Departments at ACC.

C) Community Education Department – Is responsible for disseminating information and fostering public support against corruption through education and awareness programs as provided under the Anti-Corruption Act No. 3 of 2012. It is also responsible for cultivating and managing relationships with stakeholders and promoting the vision and corporate identity of the ACC. It is important to add here that, for any information and messages to be well received accepted and implemented by the Community, the TONE at the top and exemplary behaviour and conduct by powers that be and ACC Officers themselves need to inspire confidence. It is very difficult for a weed smoking dad discouraging children from smoking dagga when he is still rolling one in an old newspaper and puffing the smoke in their faces.

D) Corruption Prevention Department – Is responsible for providing technical and advisory services to public and private sector institutions with the objective of preventing the occurrence of corruption.The Department’s principal functions are as follows:1. lead the ACC’s co-ordinating role of Government anti-corruption programmes and activities by developing and facilitating the implementation of the National Anti-Corruption Policy and Implementation Plan aimed at achieving a harmonized and focused anti-corruption fight;2. conduct research and surveys to generate baseline information on corruption in order to facilitate the development of appropriate measures for the effective prevention and combating of corruption;3. examine the practices and procedures of public and private bodies in order to facilitate the discovery of corrupt practices and secure the revision of methods of work or procedures which may be prone and conducive to corrupt practices;4. advise public and private bodies on ways and means of preventing corrupt practices through the revision and implementation of administrative procedures and methods of work compatible with the effective performance of the client body’s duties;5. liaison with respective public bodies, develop and implement programmes and activities aimed at enhancing integrity and public service delivery by staff;6. maintain a national level data-base on corruption to facilitate decision-making on anti-corruption;7. monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of institutional programmes and activities. The Department also sits on various Standing and Ad hoc Committees to enhance transparency and accountability in the delivery of public services. In this regard the Department is divided into three Units namely: Institutional Advisory; Corruption Prevention Operations, and; Research. One personal comment regarding this Department, is that they need to constantly review the performance of the Integrity Committees, the work of Internal Auditors in both Private and Public Organization, analyze the Auditor General’s Report and the National Assembly’s Public Account Committee Reports. Fully understand why year in and year out MDAs (Ministries, Departments and Agencies, including Commissions) keep on repeating same mischief, misconduct, dishonest conduct and come up with the Strategic Policy on how to effectively combat corruption, otherwise the ACC risks losing face by members of the public. E) Human Resource and Administration – is responsible for providing resource management and administration services that supports delivery of operational outputs of other departments in the Commission and facilitates their performance. The department’s principal functions are:1. Human Resource Management, Development, Financial Management, Office Administration, Secretarial Service, Records Management, Information Technology and Communications. The challenge of nepotism, employing relatives, cadres, the sons and daughters of Commissioners, Other staff members in the manner OOP, DEC, Immigration, ZPS, ZAF, ZNS, Army, UNZA and CBU should be discouraged. Employ on merit. TO BE CONTINUED!

List of Angolan millionaires who have been granted amnesty to return stolen wealthy which they had hidden in foreign countries

The Government is working with the countries where these monies for Angolan people was hidden. THE LIST HAS COME OUT FOR ALL THOSE WHO NEED TO REPATRIATE BACK THE MONEY THEY HAVE IN OVERSEAS ACCOUNTS

1.José Eduardo dos Santos: USD 7,9 Billion

2.Hélder Manuel Viera Dias Júnior “Kopelipa”: USD 2, 6 billion

3.Leopoldino Fragoso do Nascimento «Dino»: USD 1,8 billion

4.Manuel Domingos Vicente: USD 3,8 billion

5.Isabel dos Santos Dokolo: USD 12,7 billion

6.Tenente-Coronel Leonardo Lidinikeni (ex-oficial de escolta presidencial): USD 314,3 million

7.José Lima Massano: USD 1.2 billion

8.José Filomeno dos Santos “Zenú”: USD 1,9 billion

9.José Leitão da Costa e Silva: USD 842,7 million

10.José Maria (ex-chefe da Inteligência Militar): USD 854,3 million

11.Jean-Claude Bastos de Morais: USD 2,5 billion

12.Armando da Cruz Neto: USD 213,7 million

13.Álvaro Sobrinho: USD 1,7 billion

14.Elísio de Figueiredo(Embaixador): USD 1,8 billion

15.António Pitra Neto: USD 578 milion

16.Higino Lopes Carneiro: USD 1,2 million

17.Carlos Hendrick Silva; USD 243,2 million

18.General Fernando Araújo: USD 283,1 million Empresário

19.António Mosquito e o Bancário Sebastião Lavrador: USD 213,8 million

20.Marcel Kruse: USD 348,2 million Empresário e político.

21. Joaquim David: USD 854,9 million

22.Administrador da Sonangol Abílio Sianga: USD 743,7 million

23.Bancário Mário Palhares: USD 843,8 million

24.Aguinaldo Jaime; USD 412,8 million

25.António França “Ndalu” USD 312,9 million

26.Amaro Taty: USD 232,9 million

27.Diretor da ASCORP Noé Baltazar: USD 743,9 million

28.Desidério Costa: USD 621,9 million

29.Isaac dos Anjos: USD 312,8 million

30.Faustino Muteka: USD 532,1 million

31.Carlos Hendrick: USD 198,8 million

32.António Vandúnem: USD 317,5 million

33.Manuel Augusto da Fonseca(Sonangol): USD 429,2 million

34.Orlando Veloso (ex-PCE da Sonangol Imobiliária): USD 512,7 million

35.José Carlos de Castro Paiva, (ex-Administrador não-executivo da Sonangol): USD 312,1 million

36.José Pedro de Morais: USD 542,7 million

37.General Pedro Neto: USD 286,9 million

38.Dumilde Rangel: USD 213,5 million

39.Santana André Pitra: USD 267,4 million

40.Hendrick Vaal Neto: USD 265,2 million

41.Fernando da Piedade dias Santos Nandó: USD 623,7 million

42.Salomão Xirimbimbi: USD 312,8 million

43.Fátima Jardim (ex-Ministra das Pescas): 121,5 million

44.Álvaro Carneiro (ex-director adjunto da Endiama): USD 276,9 million

45.Ramos da Cruz: USD 163,8 million

46.Gomes Maiato: USD 285,8 million

47.Joanes Andre: 693,7 million

48.João Eduardo dos Santos: USD 412,4 million

49.Marta dos Santos: USD 1,2 billion

50.Bento Kangamba: USD 203,7 million

51.Gonçalves Muandumba: USD 175,8 million

52.Luiz Paulino dos Santos (ex-governador do Bié): USD 86,3 million

53.Paulo Kassoma: USD 126,3 million

54.Empresário Rui Santos: USD 1,8 billion 55.Mário António (Adm. da GEFI): USD 83,9 million

56.Silva Neto (ex-administrador da Sonangol Distribuidora): USD 453,8 million

57.Júlio Bessa (ex-Ministro das Finanças): USD 113,7 million

58.Paixão Franco: 163,8 million

59.Kundi Payhama: USD 217,8 million

60.General Furtado: USD 198,4 million

61.Ismael Diogo: USD 59,3 million

62.Augusto Tomás; USD 846,1 million

63.Generoso de Almeida; USD 213,6 million

64 General Cirilo de Sá: USD 147,1 million

65.Paixão Junior: USD 241,7 million

66.General Adolfo Razoilo: USD 162,4 million

67.Bornito de Sousa(actual vice-presidente da república): USD 317,4 million

68.Gilberto Lutukuta: USD 98,8 million

69.José Pedro de Morais: USD 312,8 million Empresário

70. Fernando Borges: USD 134,2 million

71.José Lopes; USD 73,9 million

72.Irmãos Ceita: USD 421,7 million

Terrorism within African Territories

05/20/2020 – Deep Reflection – Terrorism within African Territories As the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Troika summit is currently underway in Zimbabwe’s Capital City Harare with President Dr. Mokgweetsi Eric Keabetswe Masisi of Botswana, President Filipe Jacinto Nyusi of Mozambique, President Dr. Edgar Changwa Lungu SC of Zambia and the host President Dr. Emmerson Mnangagwe of Zimbabwe, I deeply reflected on this summit Troika of the SADC Organ on Politics Defence and Security. The Organ is responsible for promoting peace and security in the SADC region and mandated to steer and provide Member states with direction regarding matters that threaten peace, security and stability in the region. Among many other critical issues, the Troika always discusses or must discuss is Terrorism within SADC Region. In Mozambique, “the Movement is Exploding”.

Last week, I shared my thoughts on the current VOICES and call for the African Unity and the renaissance of the Pan-African Movement which was debated by many with divergent views and opinions. The African Continent is indeed full of surprises and contradictions. Whilst we are advocating for peace and Unity, others are advocating for conflicts, terrorism, insurgence and secession. My mind wondered how the African Union (AU) and SADC organ will need to implore different strategies and approaches in order to avoid the pit falls and booby traps our brothers and sisters in North, West and East Africa have tried without much success so far in the fight against Terrorism.

I will use the words of my Lecturers – Professor Paul Pillar, Professor Daniel Byman and Professor Bruce Hoffman who have been studying terrorism, counterterrorism and insurgency for over four decades in defining what the workable and usable definition of terrorism, what it implies and means to a lay person. “The deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or, equally importantly, the threat of violence, in pursuit of political change”.

The FBI defines it as “The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives” Others have defined it “as political violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimes indiscriminate) through the violent victimization and destruction of noncombatant targets (sometimes iconic symbols). In a nutshell, Terrorism, is the calculated use of violence to create a general climate of fear in a population and thereby to bring about a particular political objective.

Terrorist Financing (TF) however “is an act of any person where by any means, directly or indirectly, unlawfully and willfully, provides or collect funds with an intention that they be used, or in the knowledge that they are to be used, in part or in full, to sponsor or facilitate a terrorist activity or act”-Kunda Kalaba 2016. Not so sure how many people will be criminally prosecuted in Congo DR and Somalia for instance.

NORTH AFRICA – Egypt – The Land of the Pharaohs and Pyramids. Most of the targets of terrorism in Egypt have included government officials, police, and the Christian minority. Many attacks have been linked to Islamic extremism, and terrorism increased in the 1990s when the Islamist movement al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya targeted high-level political leaders and killed hundreds – including civilians – in its pursuit of implementing traditional Sharia law in Egypt. Apparently, Ayman Al-Zawahiri, an Egyptian doctor and leader of Egyptian Islamic Jihad group, is believed to be behind the operations of al Qaeda.

WEST AFRICA Algeria – Islamic terrorist groups operating in Algeria are generally affiliated to Al Qaeida in the Maghreb (AQIM) aka Daesh. These groups advocate a strict interpretation of Islamic Law and their aim is to create an Islamic state in the region, using all necessary means, including violence. Their activities have been going on for a long time. Nigeria – Boko Haram – In the local Hausa dialect, Boko Haram means “Western education is forbidden.” The group also refers to itself as Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati Wal-Jihad, meaning “People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad.” Originally, the group was referred to locally as the Nigerian Taliban because of their religious similarities to the Taliban’s in Afghanistan. Started small but now Boko Haram militants mainly inhabit areas in the northern states of Nigeria, specifically Yobe, Kano, Bauchi, Borno and Kaduna and stray into other neighbouring Countries.

EAST AFRICA Somalia – The Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, aka al-Shabaab, is a terrorist, jihadist fundamentalist group based in central and southern Somalia. It is committed to expelling foreign forces from Somalia, overthrowing the current government, and establishing an Islamist regime under sharia. It also subscribes to the transnational jihad ideology espoused by Al-Qaeda. In 2012, it pledged allegiance to the militant Islamist organization Al-Qaeda. Kenya has been a frequent target of terrorist attacks. The largest, most high-profile attack occurred in 1998 when al-Qaeda operatives bombed the U.S. embassy in Nairobi, killing more than 220 people. In September 2013 siege of Nairobi’s Westgate shopping mall left 67 people dead, and the April 2015 attack on Garissa University in northeastern Kenya in which militants killed 148 people. The Somali terror group has increased attacks in Kenya in order to dissuade the country from sending its military to help stabilize neighboring Somalia. On 10/02/2020, the U.S partnered with Kenya to establish the first ever Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF-K) outside of the US based in Nairobi following an al-Shabab attack on the DusitD2 Hotel in Nairobi in January 2019 that left over 20 people dead.

SOUTHERN AFRICA Congo DR: Bakata Katanga aka Mai Kata Katanga, aka Mai Bakata Katanga, aka Mayi-Mayi Bakata Katanga is a rebel group in the Democratic Republic of the Congo that claims to fight for the independence of Katanga Province. In 2013, more than 200 Kata Katanga rebels entered the capital of the province of Katanga. At least 35 people died. As a result of the conflict, nearly 400,000 people from Katanga live in refugee camps. Katanga is regularly engulfed by secessionist unrest dating back to 1960 when the mining province announced it was seceding from the rest of the nation, triggering a long series of wars and rebellions. While the insurgency has been active in various forms since 1960, insurgent groups redoubled their efforts after the 2011 jail break that freed Gédéon Kyungu Mutanga (GKM), who was a leader of the militant group that waged an insurgence against the Congo DR in the Katanga Insurgency seeking to form an independent Katanga State. In 2006, he was detained and sentenced to death. In September 2011, he escaped from Prison in Lubumbashi after his militia fired on the prison guards and founded the Mai Mai Kata Katanga militia after his escape. Mozambique: The Ahlu Sunnah Wa-Jamo (Shabaab) – The Insurgency in Cabo Delgado is an ongoing conflict by alleged jihadist insurgents in Cabo Delgado Northern Province, Mozambique near Tanzania. For obvious reasons, I will dwell more on this group since the SADC Troika needs to concentrate their efforts on the TWO very Hotspots sand-witching ZAMBIA, namely Congo DR and Mozambique. We have been receiving refugees in Zambia from Congo DR for along time and Zambia experienced insurgence overspills from Mozambique along Katete/Mutete Boarder area and the Great East Road UBZ Bus terrorism in the 1980s and 1990s. Millennials may not know this but, this is for another day.

HISTORICAL perspective – Filipe Jacinto Nyusi, 4th President of Mozambique, since 2015 previously served as Minister of Defence from 2008 to 2014. Disturbing events in Mozambique’s Mocímboa da Praia area in the Cabo Delgado region, close to Tanzania, have hogged the limelight since 2017. Cabo Delgado, a province expected to become the centre of a natural gas industry has been rocked by a spate of attacks on security forces and civilians. According the Washington Post of 05/15/2020, “Mozambique’s most northeastern province, Cabo Delgado is where ExxonMobil and Total are developing the gas projects. There are also lucrative ruby and graphite mining ventures. About 1,100 people have been killed since the extremists launched their violent campaign in October 2017, according to ACLED”.

Coincidentally, the attacks came a few months after the death of rebel leader turned opposition politician Afonso Dhlakama, which signaled a turning point in prospects for peace in Mozambique. When the first attack was reported in October 2017, many people thought it was perpetrated by Renamo that has been fighting the Frelimo government since Mozambique attained independence in 1975. These attacks have created scary news headlines from both the local and international media: “Suspected Islamists behead 10 in Mozambique village: state radio”; “Beheadings signal threat to Mozambique’s $30 billion bonanza”; “New ISIS cell in Mozambique: Expansion claimed after beheadings”; “Rising violence plagues resource-rich Mozambique”; “Police Kill 9 ‘insurgents’ in Mozambique”; “How Mozambique’s smuggling barons nurtured jihadists”; “Mozambique’s new opposition leader goes into hiding” and more.But the attackers are now believed to be Islamic extremists.

The Cabo Delgado have been spotted flying the black and white “Islamic State” flag after committing acts of terror and they have publicly declared their intention to turn Mozambique into a “caliphate.” The Insurgents seek ‘caliphate’ – What is “Caliphate”? This is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph, a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah which is the Muslim community. We have Muslims in Zambia and many in Eastern Province closer to Mozambique and they may wish to shed more light on what their brothers across are up to. Initially, the Cabo Delgado insurgents sought to further foment unrest towards the central government in Maputo over mismanagement of the country’s abundant resources, which include large-scale oil reserves, and widespread corruption. Mainly fought between Islamist militants attempting to establish an Islamic state in the region, and Mozambican security forces. Civilians have been the main targets of attacks by Islamist militants.

In the last two years since the insurgency began in Mozambique, more than 200,000 people have fled their homes and more than 900 people have been killed, according to the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED). The extremists have mostly targeted remote villages, though they briefly occupied the district headquarters of Mocimboa da Praia in March 2020 and burnt government buildings, including an army barracks. “The criminals tried to recruit young people to join their ranks, but there was resistance. This provoked the anger of the criminals, who indiscriminately killed, cruelly and diabolically, 52 young people,” police spokesman Orlando Mudumane said in a statement to public broadcaster TVM.

Locals told French news agency AFP that the militants tore local schools, hospitals, and a bank upside down, as well as setting fire to bridge-building equipment. At least 52 people were massacred in a village in northern Mozambique, local police confirmed on Wednesday, when they refused to join a regional Islamist terror group. The attack occurred in the village of Xitaxi in the Muidumbe district, about 100 km (62 miles) from the border with Tanzania.

CHALLENGE FOR THE AU, SADC & COMESA including the TROIKA – For the avoidance of doubt, Insurgency however though similar with guerilla warfare or terrorism in execution is a protracted political-military struggle with the goal of displacing the legitimacy of a government or occupying power and controlling the resources of a territory through irregular military forces. The objective of gaining control of a population and its resources is what largely differentiates insurgencies from purely terrorist organizations. A debate for another day whether one group can be referred to both as a terrorist group and insurgency group. Suffice to state that one of the strategies terrorist groups use is they try to take their small group and build it into a large insurgent organization that can conduct guerrilla warfare.

Now, there is a difference between terrorism and insurgency. But, in strategic terms, often terrorists are trying to go from one stage, terrorism, to a much larger stage of insurgency. And, indeed, many of the terrorist groups that have consumed the attention of the world, such as Hezbollah, or the PKK in Turkey or Sendero Luminoso in Peru, are insurgent groups that also use terrorism. The Mozambique group seem to be heading in the same destructive and destabilizing trajectory. This is how Terrorists and insurgent groups think and want Governments to react and respond. They start with small numbers, small violent but brutal actions. Since Governments like in Zambian recent Fires, Gassing and alleged ritual killings may lack precise intelligence, they like the Mozambique Government counterparts may make mass arrests and end up getting the wrong people. And often they are shooting back.

And when Governments kill people, then they create a dynamic where the cousins, the brothers, the family members, of those arrested, injured, involved or killed as collateral damage, join insurgent groups to seek revenge. So, what we might see in Mozambique as initial limited violence may create a government crackdown that largely fails in Cabo Delgado. We may see the initial limited violence discredit the government of Mozambique.

By the way, the use of “hired mercenaries from South Africa” led by the Zimbabwean retired Colonel seems not to help that much so far. Over time, this group if not handled now, may get bigger and bigger, to the point where they want to be. That is the intention of any Insurgence, including this one calling itself “Islamic State Central Africa Province.” Locals also refer to it as al-Shabaab, though there is no evidence of a link between the fighting in Mozambique and the terrorist group based in Somalia.After reading and watching the destruction by terrorist groups such as Boko Haram in Nigeria and its neighbours; Al-Qaeda, Al-Shabaab in Somalia and neighbouring countries and ISIS/ISIL, it is still unthinkable that an insurgency like the one in Mozambique could become an issue in the SADC Region.

As we watch and study the developments, other crucial questions to ask are: Are we likely to see an increased magnitude in the insurgency? Who are these terrorists affiliated to, and if they are being sponsored, who is sponsoring them and why? What is the possibility of the insurgency spreading beyond the Cabo Delgado Province into other neigbouring countries in the map shared?

Will Mozambique, SADC, COMESA, African Union (AU) contain the insurgency? Examples in Nigeria, Somalia, Congo are many for us to wonder why those hotspots in Africa still continue to terrorize innocent civilians and peace citizens. The conflict accelerated in late March 2020 when the fighters took control of the strategic port of Mocímboa da Praia for 24 hours. Two days later, on March 25, they took another coastal town, Quissanga, and stayed there for several weeks while trying to win support from Muslims there and in the surrounding district. The government can’t afford to incur civilian casualties that would lose it local support.

While saying the fighters have similarities to other insurgents in Nigeria, Somalia and West Africa’s Sahel region, Mozambique’s group is unique. “Cabo Delgado is giving birth to its own unique brand of extremism.” The Mozambican government should have headed off the conflict with “inclusive development, with greater social, territorial and ethnic equity in the distribution of resources,” João Mosca, director of Maputo-based think tank. What does this mean for Mozambique’s economic growth and development? Will this affect investment in Mozambique and the region? Just like the Herald Newspaper of Zimbabwe stated, “We are not trying to be alarmist, but pointing out the reality, for all the terrorist groups started in a small way like the one in Cabo Delgado. So, what lessons can be drawn by neighboring countries” like Zimbabwe, South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia? The extremists, who pledge allegiance to the Islamic State group, risk giving Mozambique “the type of threat that Boko Haram has become in Nigeria,” U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Tibor Nagy told journalists earlier this month. “Boko Haram was just a small movement, and because of the way the Nigerian government initially responded to it, it grew into a very serious threat,” Nagy said, adding that Mozambique should take a different approach.

A number of reports acknowledge that Cabo Delgado is one of the richest regions in Mozambique, but still mired in poverty and youth unemployment and these are people that can be easily manipulated by all sorts of doctrines. Mozambique’s armed forces have killed 50 Islamic extremist fighters this week in two battles in the country’s north where the insurgents have launched 11 attacks this month, the government said. The attacks show a marked increase in extremist violence in gas-rich Cabo Delgado province, causing considerable trouble for the government and the foreign companies investing billions of dollars in projects to produce liquefied natural gas from gas fields off the Indian Ocean coast. Kaleza OIL and GAS ili na chibanda china cha che! Mwine Mushi and Kasaka would say SADC TROIKA must find the LOOT COZI (Root Cause/causing the Mozambique Terrorism and Insurgency. Stay Safe and be blessed as we self-quarantine and continue social distancing. KEKK-05/20/2020

Deep reflections on the FATHER’s “SUN”Day.

22 June 2020: 06/21/2020 – Deep reflections on the FATHER’s “SUN”Day. Morning “Online” Prayers and I go out jogging. Hot and Humid in the Sunshine State, but a man has to do what a man has to do. I come back home and take a cold shower. Breakfast and upon, checking my phone, messages have flooded my phone. It is FATHERS Day. Thanks a lot. One “chain” message from several colleagues from across the globe went like this. “Had to do it bro. I Nominate you for the Most loving and hardworking Dad Award. You must send to 15 dads and make their day. Sometimes u just need to hear it. You’re an awesome dad, doing a great job and you’re so loved!”

Now, as a Dad, I’m dedicating this to my Children. In our African Ubuntu, by extension, to all my nieces and nephews, friends and neighbors children, all their friends and anyone below the age of 35. Yes, all the Youth and young and old enough to be my children or indeed anyone who cares to listen to this “Happy Father’s Day” in June 2020.

The first thing you must do is see your destination. Though it sounds ridiculously obvious, the world is filled with people who are striving to get somewhere they haven’t even fully imagined. It’s not enough to desire something different, or to want to get away from where you are. You must be specific about what you do want, and where you do seek to be. Don’t waste time complaining or arguing about what is. Don’t drain all your energy worrying about the problems, challenges and pitfalls. You are, right now, blessed with the near-miraculous power to do great things.

Imagine exactly what those things might be, and put that power to work. If you believe in yourself and have dedication and pride – and never quit, you’ll be a winner. The price of victory is high but so are the rewards. – Paul Bryant When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you, till it seems as though you could not hang on a minute longer, never give up then, for that is just the place and time that the tide will turn. – Harriet Beecher Stowe “Correct me, LORD, but only with justice — not in your anger, lest you reduce me to nothing”(Jeremiah 10:24). God is love! God is also Holy and Righteous! If he did not lovingly and tenderly correct us, none of us could survive before His awesome perfection. Yet our God has chosen to give us His undeserved mercy and kindness as He corrects us and molds us to be more like him.

The most authentic thing about us is our capacity to create, to overcome, to endure, to transform, to love and to be greater than our suffering. – Ben OkriEnough to get started. Whether you have a lot to work with or you don’t have very much, there’s one thing you do have. You have enough to get started, so go ahead and take the first step. Whether you know everything there is to know or you know almost nothing, you certainly know enough to get started. Once you’re in motion, you will surely learn a whole lot more. Whatever must be done will not be done by waiting for the perfect conditions. The fact is, you can take the first step, and the step after that, no matter what the conditions may be. The resources, relationships, ideas, knowledge and expertise you seek are all connected to you in some way. To activate the connection you must activate yourself, and get to work. Get to work, and suddenly you find ways to transform what you need into what you have. Get to work, and with every effort new pathway may open up to you. Achievement is calling, and there’s no good reason to wait another moment. You already have enough to get started, so do. You are wired to succeed. The more you work, the luckier you will become. You are Wired differently. Stay Safe, Be blessed. KEKK2020

COVID-19 in the year 2020

5 July 2020: COVID-19 in the year 2020. Florida State in USA has experienced an average of more than 10,000 new cases recorded each day since 1st July, 2020. 4th July 2020 (US Independence Day) alone recorded 11,500 new Covid-19 cases in Florida. If you can, please for now, avoid the great temptation to frequent crowded places like Nice Sandy Beaches, Disney World, Gator land, The Holy Land, The Sea World, Florida and Millennial Malls, Universal Studios, NASA Space Stations. Social distancing, hygiene, Facial masking, self-quarantining, dieting, exercising and reading/studying may help.